General Reading Test 8
Consumer reviews of coffee-makers
A. This traditional free-standing coffee-maker, which is suited to most types of standard ground coffee, will fill your house with a classic aroma in the morning. Its conventional black design will look stylish on any kitchen worktop, as long as you’ve got plenty of space. Although it doesn’t include the components needed for making a cappuccino, these are available at a reasonable price.
B. The advantage of this model is that it’s very simple to operate. You do need to wash all the component parts after each use, however, so it’s not the ideal choice for busy workplaces or student kitchens. Small and compact, this attractive red and grey machine is great value for money, even if it only makes a standard cup of coffee.
C. This classic stove-top model has stood the test of time. It comes in either plain silver or bright orange, and there are five sizes available. Although it works fine on either gas or electric cookers, be aware that this coffee-maker isn’t suitable for use with induction hobs.
D. You can make all sorts of coffee at the push of a button with this machine. It also comes with a separate steam outlet for warming milk and a built-in timer so that you can wake up to the smell of coffee in the morning. It’s quite bulky, however, so isn’t great in kitchens where space is limited.
E. This large machine is really a type of home coffee-bar and comes with clear step-by-step guidance for the budding barista. It makes great coffee, but takes a while to set up so isn’t ideal if you just want one cup of coffee. Also,
you’ll need to give yourself some time to clean all its components if you use it regularly.
F. This electric coffee-maker comes in a distinctive shade of blue and is a favourite in offices and shared kitchens up and down the country. Not only is it very easy to move around, but there is also almost no mess to clear up afterwards. The coffee’s not great, however, and you’re tied into using one brand of coffee capsules, which are quite expensive.
Medical records in the UK: information for patients
As a patient, you may receive care and treatment from a number of places, such as your health centre, hospitals and community services. We will use information such as your postcode and National Health Service (NHS) number to link your records from these different places. Records are linked in a secure system so your identity is protected. Details that could identify you will be deleted before your information is made available to others. We sometimes release confidential information to approved researchers, if this is allowed by law, and meets the strict rules that are in place to protect your privacy. It helps researchers by supporting studies that identify patterns in diseases, responses to different treatments, and the effectiveness of different services.
Information will also help us to:
• find more effective ways of preventing, treating and managing illnesses
• understand who is at most risk of particular diseases and conditions, so those in charge of care planning can provide preventative services
• guide decisions about how to manage NHS resources so that they can best support the treatment and care of all patients
We are very careful with the information, and we follow strict rules about how it is stored and used, and have a thorough process that must be followed before any information can be shared. When we share information we will make sure we do so in line with the law, national guidance and best practice.
We have explained how useful information about you is, and the steps that we take to protect your privacy. However, you may want to prevent confidential information about you being shared or used for any purpose other than providing your care (except in special circumstances allowed by law, such as when there is a public health emergency). If you do not want information that identifies you to be shared outside your health centre, please ask the centre to make a note of this in your medical records.
If you are happy for your information to be shared, you do not need to do anything. There is no form to fill in and nothing to sign. And you can change your mind at any time.
Starting a family restaurant business: advice for entrepreneurs
Television chefs may make running a restaurant look easy, but experts advise prospective business owners to prepare a comprehensive business plan before hanging out their sign. Modeling the overall expenses of a restaurant’s first year by asking for quotes from food vendors, electricians, and staffing agencies can help novice owners understand how much is required to make their dream restaurant a reality.
A restaurant owner’s familiarity with the food service industry will often define the turnaround time from idea to execution. Owners who choose to hire a head chef may need longer to research and interview potential candidates or to wait for the chef’s existing contract to finish. The right location may require additional time for a lease to become available, especially in a dining district that is fashionable. Owners should also plan for construction, hiring, design, and testing phases, budgeting to ensure their companies don’t run out of cash flow before servers can start taking orders.
Business owners without experience in the food service industry often make the mistake of believing their own passion for a particular style of food will translate into a successful new restaurant. In reality, many owners have to wait until they establish enough rapport with their customers to put some unusual specials onto the menu. Small restaurants must work even harder to please diners since they must rely mostly on word of mouth and critics’ reviews instead of expensive marketing campaigns.
Experts often categorize restaurants as either quick service, mid-scale or upscale. When dreaming about their ideal food service business, entrepreneurs often think about mid-scale restaurants. However, quick service restaurants often prove the easiest to start. Quick service no longer means just ‘fast food’, especially with a variety of concepts that minimize launch and training times. Upscale restaurants often prove trickier to get started, requiring more hands-on expertise and enough added value to warrant higher prices.
New restaurant owners surveyed for articles appearing in the Boston Globe and the New York Times all cited the desire to ‘work with their hands and see more direct results from their labor than they enjoyed in their previous careers. Small restaurants can benefit from strong word of mouth, especially when they cater for a specific market, like lunch-hour rush or pre-theater dinner. When choosing a concept, prospective restaurant owners should be able to explain why diners will prefer their establishment.
Five characteristics of successful jobseekers : What does it take to actually get the job you want?
Crafting the perfect curriculum vitae (CV) is vital, and making the right preparations for the interview goes without saying. And of course, for certain positions, having a particular skill may be a necessity. But apart from that, what will really make a difference? The answer may be simpler than you think. In fact, there might be one key change you can make to dramatically improve your chances of success: master your mindset. Skill set is about what you can do, and mindset is about what you see, think and believe. Used correctly, it can make any one of us stand out from the crowd.
With technology developing at an unprecedented rate, nobody can predict the skills needed to succeed in five or ten years’ time. When we asked over 800 employers, 96% of them chose mindset over skill set as the key element they seek when employing (and retaining) staff.
Based on these findings, here are the top five characteristics of successful job seekers:
5. 72.56% of employers highlighted accountability as an essential characteristic when looking for new employees. The individuals who demonstrate accountability most effectively are those who go beyond the confines of their job description, take responsibility for things that go wrong and/or attempt to make improvements in any way they can.
4. Perhaps unsurprisingly, adaptability was chosen as essential by 75.12% of employers surveyed. Those candidates who can genuinely display the flexibility and ability to rise to any challenge they face, and respond positively to it all, will automatically increase their employability.
3. Whatever industry you’re in, having a sense of trust in others around you is vital for a harmonious workplace. Perhaps that’s why 90.93% of employers chose trustworthiness as their next essential characteristic when hiring.
2. 91.4% of hiring managers think that honesty is the best policy. Although honesty is inevitably linked to accountability and trustworthiness to a certain degree, adopting it as an integral part of your mindset, and being able to practically display it is crucial. It doesn’t have to be too hard-hitting, just a few words to show that you have morals should be more than enough.
1. Finally, according to our research the most important trait for successful jobseekers is commitment. In fact, 92.09% of all employers said that this was absolutely essential for all team members and potential hires. Being dedicated to one’s work undoubtedly has an exceptionally powerful effect. If it’s there, it engenders trust and earns respect. When it’s missing, it’s almost impossible to replicate or attain belief from any level of the business.
The fashion industry
A. The process of managing the flow of products, from the initial selection of designs, to the presentation of products to retail customers, is known as fashion marketing. Its goal is to maximize a company’s sales and profitability. Successful fashion marketing depends on understanding consumer wishes and responding with appropriate products. Marketers use sales tracking data, attention to media coverage, focus groups and other means of determining consumer preferences. They then provide feedback to designers and manufacturers about the type and quantity of goods to be produced. Marketers are thus responsible for identifying and defining a fashion producer’s target customers, and for responding to the preferences of those customers.
B. Marketing operates at both the wholesale and retail levels. Businesses that do not sell their own products to customers must place those products at wholesale prices in the hands of retailers, such as boutiques, department stores, and online sales companies. They use fashion shows, catalogs, and a sales force armed with sample products to find a close fit between their products and the retailer’s customers. Marketers for companies that do sell their own products at retail are primarily concerned with matching products to their own customer base. At both the wholesale and the retail level, marketing also involves promotional activities, such as advertising. This is aimed at establishing brand recognition and brand reputation for a range of characteristics such as quality, low price, or trendiness.
C. Closely related to marketing is merchandising, which attempts to maximize sales and profitability by persuading consumers to buy a company’s products. In the standard definition of the term, merchandising involves selling the right product, at the right price, at the right time and place, to the right customers. So fashion merchandisers must utilize marketers’ information about customer preferences as the basis for decisions about such things as stocking appropriate merchandise in adequate but not excessive quantities, offering items for sale at attractive but still profitable prices, and discounting overstocked goods. Merchandising also involves presenting goods attractively and accessibly through the use of store windows, instore displays, and special promotional events. Merchandising specialists must be able to respond to surges in demand by rapidly acquiring new stocks of the favoured product. An inventory-tracking software program in a department store in London, for instance, can trigger an automatic order to a production facility in Shanghai for a certain quantity of garments, of a specified type and size, to be delivered in a matter of days.
D. By the early 21st century, the Internet had become an increasingly important retail outlet, creating new challenges (e.g., the inability for customers to try on clothes prior to purchase, the need for facilities designed to handle clothing returns and exchanges) and opening up new opportunities for merchandisers (e.g., the ability to provide customers with shopping opportunities 24 hours per day, affording access to rural customers). In an era of increasingly diverse shopping options for retail customers, and of intense price competition among retailers, merchandising through the web has emerged as one of the most important functions of the modern fashion industry.
E. Fashion designers and manufacturers promote their clothes not only to retailers, but also to the media and directly to customers. Already in the late 19th century, Paris couture houses began to offer their clients private viewings of the latest fashions. By the early 20th century, not only couture houses but also department stores regularly put on fashion shows with professional models. In imitation of Parisian couturiers, ready-to-wear designers in other countries also began mounting fashion shows for a mixed audience. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, fashion shows became more elaborate and theatrical, were held in larger venues with specially constructed elevated runways (‘catwalks’) for the models, and played an increasingly prominent role in the presentation of new fashions.
F. By the early 21st century, fashion shows were a regular part of the fashion calendar. The couture shows, held twice a year in Paris (in January and July) by the official association of couture designers (comprising the most exclusive and expensive fashion houses), present outfits that might be ordered by potential clients, but which often are intended more to showcase the designers’ concepts of fashion trends and brand image. Ready-to-wear fashion shows, separately presenting both women’s and men’s wear, are held during spring and fall ‘Fashion Weeks’, of which the most important take place in Paris, Milan, New York, and London. However, there are literally dozens of other Fashion Weeks internationally—from Tokyo to São Paolo. These shows, of much greater commercial importance than the couture shows, are aimed primarily at fashion journalists and at buyers for department stores, wholesalers, and other major markets. Extensively covered in the media, fashion shows both reflect and advance the direction of fashion change. Photographs and videos of fashion shows are instantaneously transmitted to mass-market producers, who then produce inexpensive clothing copied from, or inspired by the runway designs.
(Q.1 to Q.10)
(Q.11 to Q.20)
14 business plan
16 head chef
18 marketing campaigns
19 quick service
(Q.21 to Q.30)
21 curriculum vitae/CV
23 job description
(Q.31 to Q.40)